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Ekstrom Library

Government Resources and International Information: Sudan


About Sudan

Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from the UK in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but broke out again in 1983. The second war and famine-related effects resulted in more than four million people displaced and, according to rebel estimates, more than two million deaths over a period of two decades. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years. After which, a referendum for independence is scheduled to be held. A separate conflict, which broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, has displaced nearly two million people and caused an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 deaths. The UN took command of the Darfur peacekeeping operation from the African Union on 31 December 2007. As of early 2009, peacekeeping troops were struggling to stabilize the situation, which has become increasingly regional in scope and has brought instability to eastern Chad. Sudan also has faced large refugee influxes from neighboring countries primarily Ethiopia and Chad. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and lack of government support have chronically obstructed the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations. Source: World Factbook


Sudan: Communications, Data and Information

Sudan: Conflict and Unrest

Sudan: Economy, Business, Labor, Banking, Industry and Trade

Sudan: Environment, Climate, Geology, Energy, Mining, Animals and Natural Disasters

Sudan: General Information, Statistics and Maps

Sudan: Government, Elections and Politics

Sudan: Health, Disability, Safety, Nutrition and Fitness

Sudan: International Relations, Diplomacy and Foreign Assistance

Sudan: Military, Defense, Intelligence, Terrorism and Peace

Sudan Terrorism

Sudan has a long history of protecting terrorists and of condoning their actions. In March 1973, Palestinian terrorists murdered the American ambassador to Sudan. In the early to mid-1990s, Khartoum was home to several well-known international terrorists, including Abu Nidal and Osama bin Laden, and in 1995 the Sudanese government was accused of complicity in the attempted assassination of Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak in Addis Ababa. In 1993 the United States designated Sudan as a state sponsor of terrorism because of the National Islamic Front’s reported links with international terrorist networks, and in 1998 the United States launched missiles at an alleged chemical munitions factory in Khartoum in response to terrorist attacks in East Africa. Sudan also has been accused of providing training facilities for various terrorist organizations. Since 2000, Sudan has reversed its policies and begun to cooperate with international counterterrorism efforts. Sudan is a party to all twelve international conventions and protocols relating to terrorism.Source: Sudan: A Country Study