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Kornhauser Health Sciences Library

Animal Research: Resources for Conducting Your Search

This guide provides users with information on best practices for literature searches conducted for animal research.

General info

Before conducting your research or upon renewal of an existing protocol, you are required by law to search a minimum of TWO relevant databases do demonstrate due diligence at attempting to find alternatives to painful procedures or making sure that the experiment you are wanting to do has not already been done. 

Listed below are general biomedical databases and specialized databases that animal researchers can use when conducting their literature searches. Hover over the link to get more information on the databases offerings.

Use the "Find it at UofL" button, and if you are having trouble accessing any articles, reach out to the library and we can help!


Databases that contain materials specifically relevant to the reduction, refinement, and replacement of animals in laboratory research and teaching will be of particular utility to your literature search. These databases have been created and are maintained by a variety of groups, including the U.S. government, universities in the U.S. and abroad, and private research institutes. You will find that these databases will cover a broader range of publication formats than commercial databases, including videotapes and software packages in addition to peer-reviewed articles.

"SEARCH is the USDA National Agricultural Library’s main search tool. It provides simple, one-stop access to more than 8 million records covering all aspects of agriculture and related disciplines.

SEARCH Everything for results from the Catalog and Articles database (AGRICOLA), PubAg, and the NAL Digital Collections (NALDC). Or you can limit your SEARCH to PubAg by selecting it at the top of the advanced search form."

"The intent of this bibliography is to assist in identifying methods and procedures helpful in supporting the development, testing, application, and validation of alternatives to the use of vertebrates in biomedical research and toxicology testing. It is produced from MEDLINE database searches, performed and analyzed by subject experts from the Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program of the Specialized Information Services Division of the National Library of Medicine."

"This information resource is a merger of the two databases on refinement & enrichment for non-primate and primate animals kept in laboratories. It disseminates reference material on all aspects of refinement of housing and handling conditions and environmental enrichment for ALL animals kept in research, testing and teaching institutions."

A database of online information for zebrafish researchers

Biomedical and Science Databases

3R's Resources

2023 NALT Concept Space

Redesigned for the machine age as part of the Library's "NALT for the Machine Age" initiative, NALT 2023 is a state-of-the-art multischeme concept space with added structural features for enhanced scalability and machine readability.

2022 Inaugural Schemes

  • "NALT Core", a trim NALT subscheme with just 13,791 frequently used agricultural concepts including 4,396 agriculturally important organisms (taxa), and structural updates (see below) for a lean and efficient machine readable agricultural knowledge base.
  • "NALT Full", all NALT concepts - NALT Core plus over 48,000 additional agricultural related organisms (taxa) and several thousand less frequently used concepts for a total of 76,933 concepts. NALT Full is  a more granular knowledge base.
  • NORINA: Norwegian Inventory of Alternatives

    "NORINA (A Norwegian Inventory of Alternatives) provides information on over 3800 audiovisual aids and other alternatives such as computer programs to the use of animals or animal products in teaching, at all levels from junior [elementary] school to university." From the Norwegian Reference Centre for Laboratory Animal Sciences & Alternatives.