Freedom House conducts an annual survey on political rights and civil liberties. This report focuses on key global findings on the level to which countries' governments are democratic, and provides a brief summary on democracy as it varies by regions of the world.
The Economic Freedom Index allows users to compare countries' freedoms based on 10 measures of freedom -- from property rights to entrepreneurship -- in 186 countries.
You can explore different countries' economic freedoms in many ways at the link: ebook, country rankings lists, an interactive map, and graphing it yourself.
The following sources provide background information on countries around the world, and will include information related to politics, governance, the economy, and more, which can be used for the case profile portion of your policy position paper.
The following resources can help you identify voting systems by country, including information on bodies of government (e.g. President; Senate; House; National Assembly; Parliament, etc.), the electoral system, and seats per district as well as total seats.
World Bank Indicators of Development provides data and statistics on measurements of development for countries around the world, and will also feature regional and global estimates. There are numerous indicators by topic, which can be seen on the navigation on the right side of the screen.