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Chicago Manual of Style Guide: Citing Nontraditional Sources

This guide is designed to help students cite sources using Chicago Manual of Style.

Citing Nontraditional Sources

This reference guide shows how to cite nontraditional sources commonly found in the visual arts using the Chicago notes and bibliography system. The following citations appear as they would be presented in the bibliography (B) and in footnotes or endnotes (F).

Images, Maps, Charts, Diagrams, Graphs, and Illustrations

See Chicago Manual of Style 14.165, 8.193

Cite the image following the style for the source where the image was found, such as book, article, website, etc. You can use the citation for the book, article or website where the visual information is found and make the following changes. If there is a photographer or illustrator use his or her name in place of the author. If there is a caption, use the caption in place of the title of an article, or add the caption title in quotation marks with proper capitalization. Add a page number where the image is found. If a numbered figure is given, add it after the page number.

See specific examples below for images found in articles and on the web.

Image from an Article:

B: Talbot, David. "Saving Holland." Technology Review 110, no. 4 (2007): 52, figure 3.

B: Vermeer, Dura. "High and Dry Concept." Technology Review 110, no. 4 (2007): 56.

B: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology. “An Arrowhead, Made from a Copper Nugget, Found at a Melting Alaskan Glacier.” Miller-McCune 3, iss. 6 (2010): 23, figure 4.

F: 1. David Talbot, "Saving Holland," Technology Review 110, no. 4 (2007): 52, figure 3.

Online Image:

If citing an image found using Google images, cite the original source – not Google.

B: Times , November 27, 2011.

B: Estrin, James. “A Worshiper at St. Patrick's Cathedral on Fifth Avenue in Manhattan.” New York Times . November 27, 2011.

F: 1. James Estrin, “A Worshiper at St. Patrick's Cathedral on Fifth Avenue in Manhattan,” New York

When citing a work of art cite the location of the piece and the owner or collection where it is housed along with the medium and size. See also Work of Art and Captions for Art.

Image or Photo from a Book:

B: Gruen, Bob. “Madison Square Garden, July 1972.” In Life , by Keith Richards with James Fox, color plate 12. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2010.

F: 1. Bob Gruen, “Madison Square Garden, July 1972,” in Life , by Keith Richards with James Fox (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2010), color plate 12.

Work of Art:

If you have viewed this work in person, cite as below.

B: Buonarroti, Michelangelo. The Slave , 1513-15. Marble, 2.09 m. Paris, The Louvre.

B: Dior, Christian. May , 1953. Silk, Length at CB ((a) to waist): 5 3/4 in. (14.6 cm) Length at CB (b): 45 1/2 in. (115.6 cm) New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art.

F: 1. Michelangelo Buonarroti, The Slave , 1513-15, marble, 2.09 m., Paris, The Louvre.

If you find an image of the work of art in a website, book, article, use the format below.

B: Delaroche, Paul. "Portrait of a Woman," 1829. Pastel drawing, 10 by 12 in. (Ackland Art Museum, Chapel Hill, NC). In European Drawings from the Collection of the Ackland Art Museum , by Carol C. Gillham and Carolyn H. Wood. Chapel Hill: The Museum, University of North Carolina, 2001, page 93.

Art Found on the Web:

B: Dior, Christian. May , 1953. Silk, Length at CB ((a) to waist): 5 3/4 in. (14.6 cm) Length at CB (b): 45 1/2 in. (115.6 cm) New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art. Accessed January 5, 2011.

Art Found in an Article:

B: Abdel Hadi Al-Gazzar, Un Djinn Amoureux , 1953. Gouache and india ink on paper, 53 by 28 centimeters. Alexandria, Collection of the Museum of Fine Arts. "Exceeding Realism: Utopian Modern Art on the Nile and Abdel Hadi Al-Gazzar's Surrealistic Drawings." South Atlantic Quarterly 109, no. 3 (Summer 2010): 585, Figure 1.


See Chicago Manual of Style 8.194

Italicize the name of a regularly appearing cartoon and cite appropriately depending where the cartoon is published, e.g., magazine, newspaper, book, website.

B: Chast, Roz. “Scenes from a Vacation.” New Yorker , October 31, 2011, 66-67.

B: Weiner, Zach. “Saturday Morning Breakfast Cereal.” . Accessed November 18, 2011.

F: 1. Roz Chast, “Scenes from a Vacation,” New Yorker , October 31, 2011, 66-67.


See Chicago Manual of Style 14.165

Cite a map as an illustration within the source. Follow the citation guidelines for the source in which the map is, e.g., website, book, article, etc. For a standalone map, cite as below.

B: Author. “Title of Map.” Edition. Scale. Series, number.

B: Ford, Frank. Mauritius . Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 1988.

F: 1. Frank Ford, Mauritius , (Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 1988).

If the map is in a book, add information about the book to your citation.

B: Author. “Title of Map.” Edition. Scale. Series, number. In Book Title , edited by, Page Numbers. Place of publication: Publisher, Date.

B: “The Economy of the Later Middle Ages.” 3:50,000. In Rand McNally Historical Atlas of the World , edited by R. I. Moore, 71, map 35. Chicago: Rand McNally & Company, 1981.


See Chicago Manual of Style 3.3, 3.7, 3.21, 3.29

Captions appear below an image or illustration. If presenting a table, see separate instructions in the Chicago Manual of Style for tables.

A caption may be an incomplete or complete sentence. It should be capitalized as you would for a regular sentence, but any specific titles of any works should follow the rules for titles and be italicized when necessary. Captions should be labeled as a Figure followed by the number in order in which it appears. The first figure should be Fig. 1, second figure is Fig. 2, etc.

A credit line should appear at the end of a caption, sometimes in parentheses or in different type (or both). A photographer’s name occasionally appears in small type parallel to the bottom or side of a photograph. Include a short citation to the work and who owns the image.

Fig. 1 Wartime visit to Australia, winter 1940 (Photograph by Karen Plume. In Australia in Wartime. By Steve Tome. Sydney: Stern and Co., 1992, 12.)

Fig. 2 The White Garden, reduced to its bare bones in early spring. The box hedges, which are still cut by hand, have to be carefully kept in scale with the small and complex garden as well as in keeping with the plants inside the “boxes.” (Photograph by John Connelly. In Gardening Through the Seasons . By Nicole Mooney. New York: Bantam Books, 2003, 99.)

If the image is being reproduced publicly you should consider adding copyright information, ie who owns the right to an image.

Fig. 3 Willem de Kooning, Pink Angels , 1945, oil and charcoal on canvas, 52 x 40 in. Frederick R. Los Angeles, Weisman Art Foundation (artwork © 2011 The Willem de Kooning Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York)

Captions for Art:

If citing a work of art you should check with the guidelines from the Art Bulletin and College Art Association.

If the image is of a piece of art include information about the artist and location of the artwork in the caption. Works of art can be cited using this format, but include the publication citation for where the image of the work of art was found, unless you have viewed the work in person.

Artist’s name (last name, first name), Title , Date, Medium and support. City, Collection.

Fig. 1 Michelangelo Buonarroti, The Slave , 1513-15, marble, 2.09 m. Paris, The Louvre.

Fig. 2 Willem de Kooning, Pink Angels , 1945, oil and charcoal on canvas, 52 x 40 in. Frederick R. Los

Angeles, Weisman Art Foundation.

Audio-Visual Material Not from Web

Musical Recording:

See Chicago Manual of Style 14.274, 14.276, all examples below directly from The Chicago Manual of Style

See The Chicago Manual of Style 8.188-92 for specific guidelines for musical compositions. Include the conductor or performer if you are specifically citing their contributions. Include a date of the recording, the copyright date/published date, or both. If you can’t find a date consult a catalog or other source. If no date can be found, use “n.d.” (for no date).

The Chicago Manual of Style suggests listing recordings in a separate discography (14.12) or under a subheading (14.58) if citing a significant number of items.

B: Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Don Giovanni . Orchestra and Chorus of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. Sir Colin Davis. With Ingvar Wixell, Luigi Roni, Martina Arroyo, Stuart Burrows, Kiri Te Kanawa, et al. Recorded May 1973. Philips 422 541-2, 1991, 3 compact discs.

B: Pink Floyd. Atom Heart Mother . Capitol CDP 7 46381 2, 1990, compact disc. Originally released in 1970.

B: Rubinstein, Artur. The Chopin Collection . RCA Victor/BMG 60822-2-RG, 1991, 11 compact discs. Recorded 1946, 1958–67.

B: Weingartner, Felix von (conductor). 150 Jahre Wiener Philharmoniker . Preiser Records, PR90113 (mono), 1992, compact disc. Recorded in 1936. Includes Beethoven’s Symphony no. 3 in E-flat Major and Symphony no. 8 in F Major.

F: 1. The Fireside Treasury of Folk Songs , vol. 1, orchestra and chorus dir. Mitch Miller, Golden Record A198:17A–B, 1958, 33⅓ rpm.

F: 2. New York Trumpet Ensemble, with Edward Carroll (trumpet) and Edward Brewer (organ), Art of the Trumpet , recorded at the Madeira Festival, June 1–2, 1981, Vox/Turnabout, PVT 7183, 1982, compact disc.

F: 3. Richard Strauss, Don Quixote , with Emanuel Feuermann (violoncello) and the Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by Eugene Ormandy, recorded February 24, 1940, Biddulph LAB 042, 1991,compact disc.

F: 4. Billie Holiday, vocal performance of “I’m a Fool to Want You,” by Joel Herron, Frank Sinatra, and Jack Wolf, recorded February 20, 1958, with Ray Ellis, on Lady in Satin , Columbia CL 1157, 33⅓ rpm.

When citing music streamed from a website also include information about the website, see also sections on citing website and on citing online multimedia.

B: Elgar, Edward. “Cello Concerto in E minor, Op. 85.” The Very Best of Jacqueline Du Pre . Performed by Jacqueline Du Pre. EMI Classics 0724358659757, 2008, Naxos streaming audio.

Unpublished Interview:

F: 1. Alex Smith (retired plumber) in discussion with the author, January 2009.

F: 2. Harvey Kail, interview by Laurie A. Pinkert, March 15, 2009, interview 45B, transcript.

Published or Broadcast Interview

See Chicago Manual of Style 14.221

If the interview has been published or broadcasted treat it like an article or a chapter in a book. If the interview was found on a website or podcast follow the rules for citing in those formats. Begin the citation with the name of the person being interviewed.

B: Downey, Robert, Jr. Interview by Graham Norton. The Graham Norton Show . BBC America, December 14, 2009.

B: Waits, Tom. Interview by Terry Gross. "Tom Waits: The Fresh Air Interview : NPR." Fresh Air from WHYY. National Public Radio. October 31, 2011.

B: Linklater, Kristin. Interview by Dawne McCance. "Crossings: An Interview with Kristin Linklater." Mosaic: A Journal For The Interdisciplinary Study Of Literature 44, no. 1 (March 2011): 1-45.

F: 1. Robert Downey Jr., interview by Graham Norton, The Graham Norton Show , BBC America, December 14, 2009.

If the interview is available online treat it as a web resource or see instructions for podcasts.

B: Sandusky, Jerry. Interview by Bob Costas. “Sandusky to Costas: ‘I am Innocent of Those Charges.’" Rock Center with Brian Williams . NBC. November 15, 2011.

F: 2. Jerry Sandusky, interview by Bob Costas, “Sandusky to Costas: ‘I am Innocent of Those Charges,’" Rock Center with Brian Williams , NBC, November 15, 2011,


See Chicago Manual of Style 14.279

When citing DVDs or VHS you will need to consider each item and use your judgment for what extra information to provide. When citing work by a particular person or group, begin with that information. If citing a particular scene or feature, such as DVD interview or commentary include the appropriate information e.g., name of scene, or names of those being interviewed or providing commentary. Cite to the date of original release and DVD/VHS release unless citing information included in a specific release, for example, cite the year the DVD was released, instead of the theatrical release date, when citing ancillary information like DVD extras. When citing TV programs, cite the date of the original airing.

B: Field of Dreams . Directed by Phil Alden Robinson. 1989; Universal City, CA: Universal Home Video, 1998. DVD.

B: Cleese, John, Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones, and Michael Palin. “Commentaries.” Disc 2. Monty Python and the Holy Grail , special ed. DVD. Directed by Terry Gilliam and Terry Jones. Culver City, CA: Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment, 2001.

B: Handel, George Frideric. Messiah . Atlanta Symphony Orchestra and Chamber Chorus, Robert Shaw. Performed December 19, 1987. Ansonia Station, NY: Video Artists International, 1988. Videocassette (VHS), 141min.

F: 1. Michael Curtis and Gregory S. Malins, “The One with the Princess Leia Fantasy,” Friends , season 3, episode 1, directed by Gail Mancuso, aired September 19, 1996 (Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2003), DVD.

F: 2. “Crop Duster Attack,” North by Northwest , directed by Alfred Hitchcock (1959; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000), DVD.

F: 3. Field of Dreams , directed by Phil Alden Robinson (1989; Universal City, CA: Universal Home Video, 1998), DVD.

TV Program:

See Chicago Manual of Style 14.274

When citing a DVD/VHS copy of a TV program, follow the citation for DVD/VHS (see instructions above). When citing a TV program streamed online cite it as Online Media (see instructions above for citing YouTube/Online Multimedia), but include the original date of broadcast. If an interview is being cited follow the citation format for an interview (see instructions above for citing an interview).

B: “Churchill’s Deadly Decision.” Secrets of the Dead . First broadcast May 12, 2010 by PBS. Directed by Richard Lipworth and written by Richard Bond.

B: Friends . Episode no. 153, first broadcast November 16, 2000 by NBC. Directed by David Schwimmer and written by Scott Silveri.

F: 1. “Churchill’s Deadly Decision,” Secrets of the Dead , first broadcast May 12, 2010 by PBS, Directed by Richard Lipworth and written by Richard Bond.

Web-Based Materials (Including Audio-Visual and Multi-Media)


See Chicago Manual of Style 14.221, 14.274, 14.277, 14.280

There are multiple ways that a podcast may be cited depending upon how you access it and the information it includes. If it is an interview you can treat it as an interview (see instructions for citing interviews above), but should note the medium and URL if available and dates of publication. If no date can be determined, cite the date accessed. Also cite the original date of performance if the podcast includes an audio or visual performance.

B: “Patient Zero.” Radiolab . Podcast audio, November 15, 2011.

B: Glass, Ira. “419: Petty Tyrant.” This American Life . Podcast audio, November 12, 2010.

F: 1. Darcey Steinke, interview by Sam Tanenhaus and Dwight Garner, New York Times Book Review , podcast audio, April 22, 2007,

Youtube/Online Multimedia:

See Chicago Manual of Style 14.280

Identify all elements possible when citing online multimedia, as you would do for a website or podcast. Include the date of publication or last accessed along with the URL. If citing the recording of an original performance, include the date of the performance. Include the source type (e.g., “video”) and length. In this case you can use irregular capitalization and grammar (see sample below “HOROWITZ AT CARNEGIE HALL 2-Chopin Nocturne in Fm Op.55”) in order to point specifically to the correct source, specifically when there is no formal publisher, such as on YouTube. Examples below are from The Chicago Manual of Style .

B: Harwood, John. “The Pros and Cons of Biden.” New York Times video, 2:00. August 23, 2008.

B: Pollan, Michael. “Michael Pollan Gives a Plant’s-Eye View.” Filmed March 2007. TED video, 17:31. Posted February 2008.

F: 1. A. E. Weed, At the Foot of the Flatiron (American Mutoscope and Biograph Co., 1903), 35 mm film, from Library of Congress, The Life of a City: Early Films of New York, 1898–1906, MPEG video, 2:19,

F:2. “HOROWITZ AT CARNEGIE HALL 2 Chopin Nocturne in Fm Op.55,” YouTube video, 5:53, from a performance televised by CBS on September 22, 1968, posted by “hubanj,” January 9, 2009,

Blog Entries:

See Chicago Manual of Style 14.246

When citing an entry in a blog include the author, title of entry in quotation marks, title of the blog and a URL. Include a date if possible.

B: Doctorow, Cory. “How the Tax Code Works for Billionaires.” Boing Boing (blog). November 28, 2011.

F: 1. David Pescovitx, “Pizza boxes advertise shelter dogs for adoption,” Boing Boing (blog), March 2, 2020,


The Chicago Manual of Style Online suggests citing a tweet in a footnote as follows, including the author’s real name, date, time, and twitter URL.

F: 1. Thomas Kaplan, Twitter post, February 2012, 6:01 p.m.,

Following this format you could cite the tweet in a bibliography as:

B: Kaplan, Thomas. Twitter post. February 29, 2012, 6:01 p.m. ‏

Or you could follow the guidelines for citing a webpage and cite a tweet as follows:

B: Kaplan, Thomas. “Twitter / @thomaskaplan: The interest in Kolb’s plan…” February 29, 2012, 6:01 p.m. ‏!/thomaskaplan/status/174992843922874368

This information is courtesy of Waidner-Spahr Library at Dickinson University

Table of Contents

Use this list to jump to specific sample types:

If you are trying to cite a source not listed on this page or anywhere else on this guide, consult the Chicago Manual of Style Online or a librarian for help.