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Kornhauser Health Sciences Library

Generative Artificial Intelligence (AI): Chatbots

Guide to widely used generative AI systems, such as ChatGPT, and their applications in health sciences research.


Most widely-used generative AI systems take the form of chatbots, able to take instructions and answer questions conversational format. This enables the user to communicate with the bot in plain English, ask follow-up questions, and request changes to the bot's output. Additionally:

  • Some systems allow the user to communicate with the bot by speaking into a microphone or uploading files.
  • Some are able to generate images or audio in addition to written text.
  • Some are able to access the internet and other external data sources, while others are ignorant of information later than their knowledge cutoff.

Below is a summary of six of the most prominent chatbots currently in use.

Enterprise AI

"Enterprise" versions of various chatbots are available for organizations to use internally.

The idea is to utilize the power of the chatbot on an organization's internal resources/data without compromising security. Typically, developers agree not to collect and leverage enterprise user inputs for further training of their models.

In practice, this may not be secure, and products meeting commercial data protection standards do not necessarily meet the demands of protected health information, for example.

Bing Chat Enterprise is free to Microsoft 365 users. The interface claims that "Your personal and company data are protected in this chat." They are not protected sufficiently. Data are still sent to Microsoft's servers, which may violate the data protection standards to which you are subject.

Summary of Notable Chatbots and their Features

  ChatGPT Claude Copilot Coral Gemini Perplexity
Developers OpenAI Anthropic Microsoft Cohere Google Perplexity
Free version
Model GPT-3.5 Claude 3 Sonnet GPT-4 Command Gemini Pro GPT-3.5
Paid version    
Behind paywall GPT-4, DALL-E 3 Claude 3 Opus     Ultra 1.0 GPT-4(V)/Claude 3
Price/month $20 $20     $20 $20
Knowledge cutoff   2023        
Web search Paid version only  
Text file input        
Image input      
Image generation Paid version only      
Voice input Paid version only      
Voice output Paid version only