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Ekstrom Library

Science and Technology: Genetics

What is the Genome?

The genome is the entire set of genetic instructions found in a cell. In humans, the genome consists of 23 pairs of chromosomes, found in the nucleus, as well as a small chromosome found in the cells' mitochondria. Each set of 23 chromosomes contains approximately 3.1 billion bases of DNA sequence. Source: Talking Glossary of  Genetic Terms , National Human Genome Research Institute

What is Mitochondrial DNA?

Mitochondrial DNA is the small circular chromosome found inside mitochondria. The mitochondria are organelles found in cells that are the sites of energy production. The mitochondria, and thus mitochondrial DNA, are passed from mother to offspring.Source:
Talking Glossary of  Genetic Terms , National Human Genome Research Institute

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